Monkeypox | Johns Hopkins Medicine

what is monkeypox?

Monkeypox is an infection caused by a virus. in some countries, the disease has been endemic, occurring among the general population, for quite some time. it is now spreading more widely throughout the world. Paul Auwaerter, M.D., M.B.A., clinical director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Johns Hopkins Medicine, provides an overview.

monkeypox symptoms

Monkeypox has a long incubation time. that means illness can take anywhere from four to 21 days after someone has been exposed to the virus.

  • Symptoms of monkeypox in humans usually begin with a general feeling of being sick.
  • flu-like symptoms develop, such as fever and muscle aches.
  • lymph nodes swell.
  • A few days later, a blister-like rash appears that resembles chickenpox. this can start on the face and spread to other parts of the body or, if acquired during intimate or sexual contact, it can start in the genital or perianal areas.
  • The rash dries up a week or two later and recovery continues.
  • In total, the monkeypox infection lasts two to four weeks. infected people are no longer contagious to others after all their skin lesions scab over or heal.

    what causes monkeypox?

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    Monkeypox is caused by a virus related to the one that causes smallpox, but monkeypox disease is usually milder than smallpox. it is called monkeypox because it was first isolated from monkeys. however, rodents, not monkeys, are the main carriers of the virus. the world health organization is going to change the name of the disease because the name monkeypox is misleading. the smallpox vaccine provides some protection against the monkeypox virus, and monkeypox disease is more likely to affect people who have never been vaccinated against smallpox. the smallpox vaccination program ended in the us uu. in 1972.

    In people, monkeypox is spread through contact with the rash or body fluids of an infected person, including respiratory droplets. close personal contact, sexual or not, can cause a person to become infected.

    monkeypox diagnosis

    A health professional can identify monkeypox with a sample of fluid taken from the rash. Your doctor may need to rule out other diseases that cause rashes, such as chickenpox, measles, or syphilis, as well as screen for sexually transmitted diseases, such as hiv, syphilis, and others.

    are there different types of monkeypox?

    yes, there are two strains of monkeypox. The strain that is endemic to several West African countries, which has been seen in outbreaks outside of Africa in 2022, is less severe than the strain that occurs in the Congo Basin. so far, the strain in the current outbreak appears similar to that seen in West African countries and has caused mild illness in most people infected with that virus.

    Is there a treatment for monkeypox?

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    Although many cases resolve on their own, people who are sicker with monkeypox can be treated with antiviral agents. Smallpox therapies can be used, although data on their effectiveness for this condition is limited.

    the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) suggest that people with severe monkeypox disease, immunocompromised patients, children younger than 8 years, and pregnant people should be considered for antiviral treatment after check with the cdc.

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved vaccines to prevent monkeypox, including jynneos. when given soon enough after exposure (within four days), vaccines can lessen the severity of illness, so health professionals may recommend vaccinations for those who have been in close contact with an infected person . In addition, antivirals are being tested to see if they are safe and effective in relieving symptoms.

    how to prevent monkeypox

    The best ways to avoid getting sick from monkeypox are to:

    • avoid close contact with infected people or with their personal belongings, bedding, etc.
    • wash your hands frequently and thoroughly.
    • wear a mask and gloves or other protection when caring for someone with monkeypox or symptoms of the disease.
      • who has suggested limiting the number of sexual partners.
      • what to do if you are exposed to monkeypox

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        According to the CDC, people who have been exposed to an infected person or animal should monitor their health for three weeks after that exposure. you can continue with your normal activities if you do not have any symptoms. do not donate blood, cells, tissues, breast milk, semen, or organs during this three-week period.

        follow these steps:

        • Take your temperature twice a day.
        • If you have a fever (100.4 or higher), chills, swollen lymph nodes, or a new rash, isolate yourself immediately and contact your state or local health department for further guidance.
        • If you only have chills and swollen glands, but no fever or rash, isolate yourself at home for 24 hours.
          • If you have a fever during this time, contact your health department.
          • If you don’t have a fever but still have chills or swollen glands after 24 hours, contact your doctor for a diagnosis.
          • Is monkeypox fatal?

            can be. some strains of monkeypox have a fatality rate of between 1% and 10%, based on case data from some African countries.

            will there be a monkeypox pandemic?

            A pandemic of monkeypox is unlikely for several reasons:

            • First, the monkeypox virus is not new. what is new are the patterns of infection among people.
            • Second, vaccines and medications that can help lessen the impact of this disease are already available.
            • finally, because monkeypox transmission requires person-to-person contact, other viruses (such as sars-cov-2, which causes covid-19) are less likely to spread among large numbers of people They don’t have close contact. physical contact.
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