There are several different types of crystals in urine.
Uric acid crystals can have different types of shapes: barrel, plate or diamond. they are usually orange-brown or yellow.
can be found in normal urine when caused by a high-protein diet, which increases uric acid in the urine.
They can also be caused by kidney stones, gout, chemotherapy, or tumor lysis syndrome.
Symptoms of kidney stones include severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin; nausea; and blood in the urine. Gout symptoms can include burning pain, stiffness, and swelling in a joint.
Treatment depends on the underlying condition, but staying hydrated is one of the best ways to treat crystals. Check out these water-rich foods that can help you stay hydrated.
Calcium oxalate crystals are shaped like weights or envelopes. they are colorless and can be found in healthy urine.
Calcium oxalate crystals are strongly associated with kidney stones, which can form when there is too much oxalate (found in foods like spinach) in the system. Symptoms of kidney stones include severe pain in the groin or abdomen, nausea, fever, and difficulty urinating. These natural remedies can help you fight kidney stones at home.
In some cases, calcium oxalate crystals can be caused by ingestion of ethylene glycol, which is toxic and an essential ingredient in antifreeze formulations. exposure to this compound can cause symptoms such as:
- irritation of the throat and lungs
- central nervous system problems
- kidney failure
- cloudy urine
- frequent and intense urge to urinate
- low back pain
Your doctor may recommend dietary changes to reduce oxalate in your diet and increase hydration. They’ll probably also recommend that you cut back on salty foods.
Hippuric acid crystals are rare. they can be yellowish-brown or transparent and often resemble prisms or needle-shaped plates. hippuric acid crystals are often found in clumps.
While sometimes caused by an acid pH in the urine, hippuric acid crystals can also occur in healthy urine.
magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite)
magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals are usually colorless rectangular prisms. They can be found in healthy urine, but are usually coincident with a urinary tract infection (UTI). other symptoms of uti include:
If a urinary tract infection is causing these crystals, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics to clear up the infection.
Calcium carbonate crystals are large, round disks with smooth surfaces. they are often a light brown color. Calcium carbonate crystals, which is a supplement you can take to get more calcium, are also frequently associated with kidney stones.
If you have calcium carbonate crystals in your urine, your doctor may recommend that you get calcium through other means, such as adding more dairy to your diet, rather than supplements.
Bilirubin is produced when the healthy destruction of red blood cells occurs. it passes through the liver.
Bilirubin crystals have a granular, needle-like appearance and are often very small and yellow in color. high levels of bilirubin or bilirubin crystals in the urine could indicate liver disease or poor liver function. other symptoms may include nausea, pain, vomiting, jaundice, and fever.
treatment depends on the underlying cause. Medications may be used to change the amount of protein absorbed from the diet, especially in cases of cirrhosis.
Calcium phosphate crystals are colorless and can appear as stars or needles, although they can also form plaques. They can appear alone or in groups. they often appear in alkaline urine, although they can be found in normal urine.
In rare cases, calcium phosphate crystals can be caused by hypoparathyroidism. symptoms of this include tingling in the hands and muscle cramps.
treatment may include drinking more water, getting more calcium, and taking vitamin d supplements.
These crystals are brown spheres with sharp spines. they almost resemble small insects. they are often found in alkaline urine, but can also be seen in normal urine.
Sometimes ammonium biurate crystals only appear because the urine sample is old or poorly preserved. Because of this, it may be recommended to collect a urine sample if these crystals appear.
Crystals of cholesterol are often transparent and shaped like long rectangles, with a notch cut out of the corner. they are more likely to appear after a urine sample has been refrigerated.
Crystals of cholesterol can be found in both neutral and acid urine. they can be caused by renal tubular disease, which can lead to kidney failure if left untreated.
treatment may include alkali therapy to help treat chronic metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular disease.
Cystine is an amino acid and can cause crystals in the urine and kidney stones. Kidney stones caused by cystine acid are usually larger than most other kidney stones. it is a rare and often genetic condition.
The condition that causes cystine to bind together and form crystals is called cystinuria. the crystals, when found in urine, are often shaped like hexagons and may be colorless. symptoms may include blood in the urine, nausea and vomiting, and pain in the groin or back.
Your doctor may prescribe chelating medications, which help dissolve the crystals.
These crystals are yellowish-brown discs with concentric rings like a tree trunk. Leucine crystals are not normally found in healthy urine. They are found in acid urine. they are usually a symptom of severe liver disease. Other symptoms may include abdominal swelling, vomiting, nausea, disorientation, and general malaise.
Treatment consists of improving liver function and health immediately. this will include medications to reduce the risk of bleeding and reduce swelling caused by excess fluid.
Tyrosine crystals are colorless and needle-shaped. they are often found in acidic urine and can be caused by metabolic disorders such as liver disease or tyrosinemia. Symptoms of tyrosinemia include difficulty gaining weight, fever, diarrhea, bloody stools, and vomiting.
Treatment includes exercising, eating a healthy diet, and taking medications that can treat high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
indinavir is a medicine used to treat hiv. May cause crystal formation in urine. indinavir crystals may resemble starbursts, rectangular plates, or fans. other symptoms of indinavir crystals may include back or side pain.