KRATOM: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Video Kratom what is it

ancuceanu rv, dinu m, anghel ai, et al. recent ban on certain psychoactive ethnobotanicals in romania. pharmacy 2010;58(2):-121-127.

arndt t, claussen u, gussregen b, et al. kratom alkaloids and o-desmethyltramadol in the urine of a consumer of herbal mixture “krypton”. forensic science int 2011;208(1-3):47-52. see summary.

babu km, mccurdy cr, boyer ew. opioid receptors and legal high: salvia divinorum and kratom. clin toxicol (phila) 2008;46(2):146-152. see summary.

backstrom bg, classon g, lowenhielm p, thelander g. [krypton-new, deadly internet drug. since october 2009 nine young people have died in sweden]. lakartidningen 2010;107(50):3196-3197. see summary.

boyer ew, babu km, adkins je, mccurdy cr, halpern jh. self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (mitragynia speciosa korth). addiction 2008;103(6):1048-1050. see summary.

boyer ew, babu km, macalino g. me. self-treatment of opiate withdrawal with a dietary supplement, kratom. i am addicted to j 2007;16(5):352-356. see summary.

chan kb, pakiam c, rahim ra. abuse of psychoactive plants: the identification of mitragynine in ketum and in ketum preparations. bull narc 2005;57(1-2):249-256. see summary.

de moraes nv, moretti ra, furr eb 3rd, mccurdy cr, lanchote vl. determination of mitragynine in rat plasma by lc-ms/ms: application to pharmacokinetics. j chromatogr b analyt technol biomed life sci 2009;877(24):2593-7. see summary.

drug administration. kratom (mytragyna speciosa korth). Available at: https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/kratom.pdf.

food and drug administration. Import Alert 54-15: Detention without physical examination of dietary supplements and bulk dietary ingredients that are or contain mitragyna speciosa or kratom. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_1137.html.

janchawee b, keawpradub n, chittrakarn s, et al. a high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of mitragynine in serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. biomedical chromatography 2007;21(2):176-83. see summary.

jansen kl, prast cj. Ethnopharmacology of kratom and mitragyne alkaloids. ethnopharmacol 1988;23(1):115-119.

kapp fg, maurer hh, auwarter v, winkelmann m, hermanns-clausen m. Intrahepatic cholestasis after abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). j med toxicol 2011;7(3):227-231. see summary.

kittirattanapaiboon p, suttajit s, junsirimongkol b, likhitsathian s, srisurapanont m. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders. neuropsychiatr dis treat 2014 Mar 13;10:453-8. see summary.

koch j, mogensen j, pedersen s, et al. rapid one-step procedure for detection of nucleic acids in situ by primer-induced sequence-specific labeling with fluorescein-12-dutp. cytogenet cell genet 1992;60(1):1-3. see summary.

kong wm, chik z, ramachandra m, et al. Evaluation of the effects of mitragynine speciosa alkaloid extract on cytochrome p450 enzymes using a high-throughput assay. molecules. 2011;16(9):7344-7356. see summary.

kronstrand r, roman m, thelander g, eriksson a. Unintentional fatal poisonings with mitragynine and o-desmethyltramadol from the herbal mixture krypton. j anal toxicol 2011;35(4):242-247. see summary.

mcwhirter l, morris s. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (mitragyna speciosa) dependence. eur addicts res 2010;16(4):229-231. see summary.

nelsen jl, lapoint j, hodgman mj, aldous km. seizures and coma after exposure to kratom (mitragynina speciosa korth). j med toxicol 2010;6(4):424-426. see summary.

Read more: What does it mean when your ear canal is swollen

parthasarathy s, ramanathan s, ismail s, et al. determination of mitragynine in plasma with solid phase extraction and rapid hplc-uv analysis, and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. anal bioanal chem 2010;397(5):2023-2030. see summary.

philipp aa, meyer mr, wissenbach dk, et al. monitoring of kratom or krypton intake in urine by gc-ms in clinical and forensic toxicology. anal bioanal chem 2011;400(1):127-135. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, et al. Use of low and high resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography to study the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug kratom in the urine of rats and humans. anal bioanal chem 2010;396(7):2379-2391. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. Metabolism studies of the kratom alkaloid speciociliatin, a diastereoisomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in human and rat urine by linear ion trap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. anal bioanal chem 2011;399(8):2747-2753. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. metabolism studies of the kratom alkaloids mitraciliatin and isopaynantheine, diastereoisomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in human and rat urine by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry. j chromatogr b analyt technol biomed life sci 2011;879(15-16):1049-1055. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereoisomer of the main kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in human and rat urine by liquid chromatography coupled with low and high resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry. mass spectrum j 2010;45(11):1344-1357. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, zoerntlein sw, et al. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug kratom, in human and rat urine by linear ion trap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. mass spectrum j 2009;44(8):1249-1261. see summary.

phongprueksapattana s, putalun w, keawpradub n, wungsintaweekul j. mitragyna speciosa: hairy root crop for production of triterpenoids and high yield of mitragynine by regenerated plants. z naturforsch c 2008 Sep-Oct;63(9-10):691-8. see summary.

Ponglux D, Wongseripipatana S, Takayama H, Kikuchi M, Kurihara M, Kitajima M, Aimi N, Sakai S. a new indole alkaloid, 7alpha-hydroxy-7h-mitragynine, from mitragyna speciosa in thailand. plant med 1994 dec;60(6):580-1. see summary.

Roche Km, Hart K, Sangall B, Lefberg J, Bayer M. “kratom: a case of a legal high”. jclintoxicol 2008;46(7):598.

rosenbaum cd, carreiro sp, babu km. here today, gone tomorrow… and back again? a review of alternatives to marijuana based on herbs (k2, spices), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. jmed toxicol 2012;8(1):15-32. see summary.

Read more: What Is Vrbo and How Is It Different From Airbnb?

sheleg sv, collins gb. a coincidence of “kratom” addiction and severe primary hypothyroidism. j addict med 2011;5(4):300-301. see summary.

singh d, müller cp, vicknasingam bk. kratom (mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. drug and alcohol dependency 2014 Jun 1;139:132-7. see summary.

united states food and drug administration (2014). sni national is voluntarily recalling kratom xl 4 pack, maeng da kratom 10 pack, max kratom 20 pack, and bali kratom 40 pack due to undeclared drug ingredients [press release].

vicknasingam b, narayanan s, beng gt, mansor sm. The informal use of ketum (mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular malaysia and the implications for drug substitution therapy. int j drug policy 2010;21(4):283-288. see summary.

ward j, rosenbaum c, hernon c, mccurdy cr, boyer ew. Herbal medicines for the treatment of opioid addiction: safe and effective alternatives to conventional pharmacotherapy? drugs cns 2011;25(12):999-1007. see summary.

abdullah hma, haq i, lamfers r. Cardiac arrest in a healthy young male patient secondary to kratom ingestion: is this “legal high” substance more dangerous than initially thought? bmj case rep. July 19, 2019; 12 (7). ip: e229778. see summary.

afzal h, esang m, rahman s. a case of kratom-induced seizures. curaus. 2020;12(1):e6588. see summary.

ahmad j, odin ja, hayashi ph, et al. Liver damage associated with kratom, a popular opiate-like product: US experience. uu. drug-induced liver injury network and a review of the literature. dependent on drug alcohol. 2021;218:108426. see summary.

aldyab m, ells pf, bui r, chapman td, lee h. Kratom-induced cholestatic liver injury mimicking primary biliary cholangitis with negative antimitochondrial antibodies: a case report and review of the literature. gastroenterology res. 2019 Aug;12(4):211-215. see summary.

ancuceanu rv, dinu m, anghel ai, et al. recent ban on certain psychoactive ethnobotanicals in romania. pharmacy 2010;58(2):-121-127.

anwar m, law r, schier j. field notes: kratom (mitragyna speciosa) exposure reported to poison centers – united states, 2010-2015. mmwr morb deadly week rep. 2016;65(29):748-9. see summary.

arndt t, claussen u, gussregen b, et al. kratom alkaloids and o-desmethyltramadol in the urine of a consumer of herbal mixture “krypton”. forensic science int 2011;208(1-3):47-52. see summary.

babu km, mccurdy cr, boyer ew. opioid receptors and legal high: salvia divinorum and kratom. clin toxicol (phila) 2008;46(2):146-152. see summary.

backstrom bg, classon g, lowenhielm p, thelander g. [krypton-new, deadly internet drug. since october 2009 nine young people have died in sweden]. lakartidningen 2010;107(50):3196-3197. see summary.

Botejue M, Walia G, Shahin O, Sharma J, Zackria R. Kratom-induced liver injury: a case series and clinical implications. cureus 2021;13(4):e14679. see summary.

boyer ew, babu km, adkins je, mccurdy cr, halpern jh. self-treatment of opioid withdrawal using kratom (mitragynia speciosa korth). addiction 2008;103(6):1048-1050. see summary.

boyer ew, babu km, macalino g. me. self-treatment of opiate withdrawal with a dietary supplement, kratom. i am addicted to j 2007;16(5):352-356. see summary.

brogdon hd, mcphee mm, paine mf, cox ej, burns ag. a case of possible kratom-drug pharmacokinetic interactions resulting in toxicity and subsequent treatment of kratom use disorder with buprenorphine/naloxone. j addict med 2022. see abstract.

burke dj, mahonski sg, van cott ac. breakthrough seizures associated with the use of kratom in patients with epilepsy. neurol clin pract 2021;11(1):78-84. see summary.

castle a, payne jd, nugent k. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome after kratom ingestion. proc (bayl univ med cent). 2017;30(3):355-357. see summary.

chan kb, pakiam c, rahim ra. abuse of psychoactive plants: the identification of mitragynine in ketum and in ketum preparations. bull narc 2005;57(1-2):249-256. see summary.

cumpston kl, carter m, wills bk. Clinical outcomes after kratom exposure: a poison center case series. i am j emerg med. 2018;36(1):166-168. see summary.

davidson c, cao d, rey t, et al. a comparative analysis of kratom exposure cases in thailand and the united states between 2010 and 2017. i am j drug and alcohol abuse. 2020:1-10. see summary.

davidson l, rawat m, stojanovski s, chandrasekharan p. natural drugs, not so natural effects: neonatal abstinence syndrome secondary to ‘kratom’. j neonatal perinatal med. 2019;12(1):109-112. see summary.

de moraes nv, moretti ra, furr eb 3rd, mccurdy cr, lanchote vl. determination of mitragynine in rat plasma by lc-ms/ms: application to pharmacokinetics. j chromatogr b analyt technol biomed life sci 2009;877(24):2593-7. see summary.

drug administration. kratom (mytragyna speciosa korth). Available at: https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drug_chem_info/kratom.pdf.

eggleston w, stoppacher r, suen k, marraffa jm, nelson ls. kratom use and toxicities in the united states. pharmacotherapy. 2019 Jul;39(7):775-777. doi: 10.1002/phar.2280. epub 2019 June 13. see summary.

eljack a, beasley m, ibrahim h, taha m, werns s. kratom-associated ventricular fibrillation. i am j ther. 2020. online ahead of print. see summary.

fda adverse event reporting system: kratom deaths. February 6, 2018. https://www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/cderfoiaelectronicreadingroom/ucm595575.pdf. accessed March 6, 2018.

gershman k, timm k, frank m, et al. Colorado deaths attributed to kratom. n english j med January 3, 2019; 380(1):97-98. see summary.

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Graves JM, Dilley JA, Terpak L, et al. kratom exposure among older adults reported in usa uu. poison centers, 2014-2019. j am geriatr soc 2021;69(8):2176-2184. see summary.

faucet oh, webb yo. kratom programming and selective use of data. j psychoactive drugs. 2017 September 22:1-7. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2017.1371363. see summary.

guddat s, görgens c, steinhart v, schänzer w, thevis m. mitragynine (kratom) – monitoring in sports drug tests. anal drug test. 2016;8(11-12):1114-1118. see summary.

halim sa, under jh, chee yc, alias mr. Seizures among young adults consuming kratom beverages in Malaysia: a case series. epilepsy behavior 2021;121(pt a):108057. see summary.

hassan r, pike see c, sreenivasan s, mansor sm, müller cp, hassan z. mitragynine attenuates morphine withdrawal effects in rats – a comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. frontal psychiatry. 2020;11:411. see summary.

hemby se, mcintosh s, leon f, cutler sj, mccurdy cr. Abuse liability and therapeutic potential of the alkaloids mitragynine speciosa (kratom) mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. bio addict September 2019; 24(5):874-885. see summary.

hughes rl. Fatal combination of mitragynine and quetiapine: a case report with discussion of a possible herb-drug interaction. sci med pathol forensics. 2019 Mar;15(1):110-113. see summary.

janchawee b, keawpradub n, chittrakarn s, et al. a high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of mitragynine in serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. biomedical chromatography 2007;21(2):176-83. see summary.

jansen kl, prast cj. Ethnopharmacology of kratom and mitragyne alkaloids. ethnopharmacol 1988;23(1):115-119.

jensen an, truong qn, jameson m, nadal cn. Kratom-induced transaminitis with subsequent precipitated opiate withdrawal after naltrexone. mental health clinic 2021;11(3):220-224. see summary.

kapp fg, maurer hh, auwarter v, winkelmann m, hermanns-clausen m. Intrahepatic cholestasis after abuse of powdered kratom (Mitragyna speciosa). j med toxicol 2011;7(3):227-231. see summary.

kittirattanapaiboon p, suttajit s, junsirimongkol b, likhitsathian s, srisurapanont m. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders. neuropsychiatr dis treat 2014 Mar 13;10:453-8. see summary.

koch j, mogensen j, pedersen s, et al. rapid one-step procedure for detection of nucleic acids in situ by primer-induced sequence-specific labeling with fluorescein-12-dutp. cytogenet cell genet 1992;60(1):1-3. see summary.

kong wm, chik z, ramachandra m, et al. Evaluation of the effects of mitragynine speciosa alkaloid extract on cytochrome p450 enzymes using a high-throughput assay. molecules. 2011;16(9):7344-7356. see summary.

kronstrand r, roman m, thelander g, eriksson a. Unintentional fatal poisonings with mitragynine and o-desmethyltramadol from the herbal mixture krypton. j anal toxicol 2011;35(4):242-247. see summary.

kruegel ac, grundmann o. The medicinal chemistry and neuropharmacology of kratom: a preliminary discussion of a promising medicinal plant and analysis of its potential for abuse. neuropharmacology. 2017. pii: s0028-3908(17)30393-3. see summary.

lei j, butz a, valentino n. Management of kratom dependence with buprenorphine/naloxone in a veteran population. substance abuse 2021;42(4):497-502. see summary.

leong abdullah mfi, tan kl, narayanan s, et al. Is kratom (Mitragyna speciosa korth.) use associated with electrocardiogram abnormalities? EKG comparisons between regular kratom users and controls. clin toxicol (row). 2020: 1-9. see summary.

leong bin abdullah mfi, singh d. Evaluation of cardiovascular function among regular users of kratom (mitragyna speciosa korth): a case series. front drug 2021;12:723567. see summary.

lydecker ag, sharma a, mccurdy cr, avery ba, babu km, boyer ew. suspected adulteration of commercial kratom products with 7-hydroxymitragynine. j med toxicol. 2016;12(4):341-349. see summary.

mackay l, abrahams r. New case of maternal and neonatal kratom dependence and withdrawal. can doctor fam. 2018 Feb;64(2):121-122. see summary.

matos-casano ha, nanduri s. transient paralysis: a new expression of kratom toxicity in humans. neurol clin pract 2021;11(1):e28-e29. see summary.

matson m, schenk n. fatality of a 33-year-old man related to kratom toxicity. j forensic science. 2019;64(6):1933-5. see summary.

mcwhirter l, morris s. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (mitragyna speciosa) dependence. eur addicts res 2010;16(4):229-231. see summary.

muhammad por, abdullahi ad, kadir, ss, abdulrazak tb, ahmed qu. In utero effects of crude ethanolic extract of mitragyna speciose leaves on neural tube formation in rats. asian j exp biol sci. 2010;1(2):404-408.

multistate outbreak of salmonella infections linked to kratom. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 2018 Outbreaks. March 15, 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/kratom-02-18/index.html. retrieved March 16, 2018

nacca n, schult rf, li l, spink dc, ginsberg g, navarette k, marraffa j. Phenylethylamine-adulterated kratom and associated intracerebral hemorrhage: Linking toxicologists and public health officials to identify dangerous adulterants. j med toxicol. November 11, 2019. see summary.

nelsen jl, lapoint j, hodgman mj, aldous km. seizures and coma after exposure to kratom (mitragynina speciosa korth). j med toxicol 2010;6(4):424-426. see summary.

obeng s, kamble sh, reeves me, et al. investigation of adrenergic and opioid binding affinities, metabolic stability, plasma protein binding properties and functional effects of selected indole-based kratom alkaloids. j chemical medicine. 2020;63(1):433-9. see summary.

olsen eo, o’donnell j, mattson cl, schier jg, wilson n. field notes: unintentional drug overdose deaths with kratom detection – 27 states, july 2016-december 2017. mmwr morb mortal wkly rep. 2019;68(14):326-327. see summary.

Read more: What does it mean when your ear canal is swollen

parthasarathy s, ramanathan s, ismail s, et al. determination of mitragynine in plasma with solid phase extraction and rapid hplc-uv analysis, and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. anal bioanal chem 2010;397(5):2023-2030. see summary.

patel p, aknouk m, keating s, et al. cheating death: a rare case presentation of kratom toxicity. cureus 2021;13(7):e16582. see summary.

philipp aa, meyer mr, wissenbach dk, et al. monitoring of kratom or krypton intake in urine by gc-ms in clinical and forensic toxicology. anal bioanal chem 2011;400(1):127-135. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, et al. Use of low and high resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography to study the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug kratom in the urine of rats and humans. anal bioanal chem 2010;396(7):2379-2391. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. Metabolism studies of the kratom alkaloid speciociliatin, a diastereoisomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in human and rat urine by linear ion trap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. anal bioanal chem 2011;399(8):2747-2753. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. metabolism studies of the kratom alkaloids mitraciliatin and isopaynantheine, diastereoisomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in human and rat urine by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry. j chromatogr b analyt technol biomed life sci 2011;879(15-16):1049-1055. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, weber aa, zapp j, maurer hh. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereoisomer of the main kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in human and rat urine by liquid chromatography coupled with low and high resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry. mass spectrum j 2010;45(11):1344-1357. see summary.

philipp aa, wissenbach dk, zoerntlein sw, et al. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug kratom, in human and rat urine by linear ion trap liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. mass spectrum j 2009;44(8):1249-1261. see summary.

phongprueksapattana s, putalun w, keawpradub n, wungsintaweekul j. mitragyna speciosa: hairy root crop for production of triterpenoids and high yield of mitragynine by regenerated plants. z naturforsch c 2008 Sep-Oct;63(9-10):691-8. see summary.

Ponglux D, Wongseripipatana S, Takayama H, Kikuchi M, Kurihara M, Kitajima M, Aimi N, Sakai S. a new indole alkaloid, 7alpha-hydroxy-7h-mitragynine, from mitragyna speciosa in thailand. plant med 1994 dec;60(6):580-1. see summary.

prozialeck wc, edwards jr, lamar pc, et al. evaluation of mitragynine content, toxic metal levels, and microbial presence in kratom products purchased in the western suburbs of chicago. int j environment res public health. 2020;17(15):5512. see summary.

Roche Km, Hart K, Sangall B, Lefberg J, Bayer M. “kratom: a case of a legal high”. jclintoxicol 2008;46(7):598.

rosenbaum cd, carreiro sp, babu km. here today, gone tomorrow… and back again? a review of alternatives to marijuana based on herbs (k2, spices), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. jmed toxicol 2012;8(1):15-32. see summary.

Sangani V, Sunnoqrot N, Gargis K, Ranabhotu A, Mubasher A, Pokal M. Unusual presentation of kratom overdose with rhabdomyolysis, transient hearing loss, and heart failure. j investig med high impact case representative 2021;9:23247096211005069. see summary.

schimmel j, dart rc. Liver injury from kratom (mitragyna speciosa): a comprehensive review. drugs 2020;80(3):263-83. see summary.

Read more: What Is Vrbo and How Is It Different From Airbnb?

sheleg sv, collins gb. a coincidence of “kratom” addiction and severe primary hypothyroidism. j addict med 2011;5(4):300-301. see summary.

singh d, müller cp, murugaiyah v, et al. evaluating hematological and clinical-chemical parameters of kratom (mitragyna speciosa) consumers in malaysia. etnofarmacol 2018;214:197-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.017. see summary.

singh d, müller cp, vicknasingam bk. kratom (mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users. drug and alcohol dependency 2014 Jun 1;139:132-7. see summary.

singh d, murugaiyah v, hamid sbs, et al. Evaluation of gonadotropins and testosterone hormone levels in regular users of mitragyna speciosa (korth.). j ethnopharmacol 2018;221:30-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.005. see summary.

smid mc, charles je, gordon aj, te wright. use of kratom, a traditional opioid-like herb, during pregnancy. gynecological obstetrics. 2018 Oct;132(4):926-928. see summary.

sni national is voluntarily recalling the 4 pack kratom xl, the 10 pack maeng da kratom, the 20 pack max kratom and the 40 pack bali kratom due to undeclared pharmaceutical ingredients. recalls, recalls and & Safety Alerts, March 14, 2014. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/safety/recalls/ucm389350.htm.

Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. about the fda advisory on the deadly risks associated with kratom. FDA Statement: Press Releases, November 14, 2017. https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm584970.htm. consulted: November 14, 2017.

Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on the agency’s scientific evidence for the presence of opioid compounds in kratom, highlighting its potential for abuse. fda statement February 6, 2018. https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm595622.htm. consulted on 04/18/2018.

torres-ortiz a, al zein s, alqudsi m. a case of hyperkalaemia induced by kratom (mitragyna speciosa). cureus 2022;14(4):e24036. see summary.

trakulsrichai s, sathirakul k, auparakkitanon s, et al. pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man. drug development. 2015;9:2421-9. see summary.

united states food and drug administration (2014). sni national is voluntarily recalling kratom xl 4 pack, maeng da kratom 10 pack, max kratom 20 pack, and bali kratom 40 pack due to undeclared drug ingredients [press release].

vicknasingam b, chooi wt, rahim aa, et al. kratom and pain tolerance: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. yale j biol med. 2020;93(2):229-238. see summary.

vijeepallam k, pandy v, murugan dd, naidu m. methanolic extract of mitragyna speciosa korth leaf inhibits ethanol-seeking behavior in mice: involvement of the antidopaminergic mechanism. metab brain dys. 2019;34(6):1713-22. see summary.

ward j, rosenbaum c, hernon c, mccurdy cr, boyer ew. Herbal medicines for the treatment of opioid addiction: safe and effective alternatives to conventional pharmacotherapy? drugs cns 2011;25(12):999-1007. see summary.

cm white. pharmacological and clinical evaluation of kratom. i am pharm health system j. 2017. pii: ajhp161035. see summary.

Content Creator Zaid Butt joined Silsala-e-Azeemia in 2004 as student of spirituality. Mr. Zahid Butt is an IT professional, his expertise include “Web/Graphic Designer, GUI, Visualizer and Web Developer” PH: +92-3217244554

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· The Stem Player is a pebble-sized MP3 player that doubles as a portable remixer. That means that as well as loading it up with your own tracks, 

What To Do When Your Car Overheats | Jiffy Lube

What To Do When Your Car Overheats | Jiffy Lube

Here are four of the signs: A strange, sweet smell coming from the engine area (this could be the scent of leaking radiator fluid, otherwise known as coolant 

Impact of Family Engagement | Youth.gov

Impact of Family Engagement | Youth.gov

Family engagement in schools contributes to positive student outcomes, including improved child and student achievement, decreased disciplinary issues, improved