HORNY GOAT WEED: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Chen, K. M., Ge, B. F., Ma, H. P., and Zheng, R. L. The serum of rats administered flavonoid extract from Epimedium sagittatum but not the extract itself enhances the development of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells in vitro. Pharmazie 2004;59(1):61-64. View abstract.

Chen, X., Zhou, M., and Wang, J. Effect of epimedium sagittatum on soluble IL-2 receptor and IL-6 levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 1995;34(2):102-104. View abstract.

Chiba, K., Yamazaki, M., Umegaki, E., Li, M. R., Xu, Z. W., Terada, S., Taka, M., Naoi, N., and Mohri, T. Neuritogenesis of herbal (+)- and (-)-syringaresinols separated by chiral HPLC in PC12h and Neuro2a cells. Biol.Pharm Bull 2002;25(6):791-793. View abstract.

Iinuma, M., Tanaka, T., Sakakibara, N., Mizuno, M., Matsuda, H., Shiomoto, H., and Kubo, M.. Yakugaku Zasshi 1990;110(3):179-185. View abstract.

Lee, M. K., Choi, Y. J., Sung, S. H., Shin, D. I., Kim, J. W., and Kim, Y. C. Antihepatotoxic activity of icariin, a major constituent of Epimedium koreanum. Planta Med 1995;61(6):523-526. View abstract.

Liao, H. J., Chen, X. M., and Li, W. G. Effect of Epimedium sagittatum on quality of life and cellular immunity in patients of hemodialysis maintenance. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1995;15(4):202-204. View abstract.

Ma, A., Qi, S., Xu, D., Zhang, X., Daloze, P., and Chen, H. Baohuoside-1, a novel immunosuppressive molecule, inhibits lymphocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. Transplantation 9-27-2004;78(6):831-838. View abstract.

Tan, X. and Weng, W. Efficacy of epimedium compound pills in the treatment of the aged patients with kidney deficiency syndrome of ischemic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. Hunan.Yi.Ke.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 1998;23(5):450-452. View abstract.

Wang, T., Zhang, J. C., Chen, Y., Huang, F., Yang, M. S., and Xiao, P. G. Comparison of antioxidative and antitumor activities of six flavonoids from Epimedium koreanum. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2007;32(8):715-718. View abstract.

Wang, Y. K. and Huang, Z. Q. Protective effects of icariin on human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury induced by H2O2 in vitro. Pharmacol.Res 2005;52(2):174-182. View abstract.

Wang, Z. Q. and Lou, Y. J. Proliferation-stimulating effects of icaritin and desmethylicaritin in MCF-7 cells. Eur.J Pharmacol. 11-19-2004;504(3):147-153. View abstract.

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Wu H, Lu Y Du S Chen W Wang Y.. Article in Chinese. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36(19):2648-2652.

Wu, B. Y., Zou, J. H., and Meng, S. C. Effect of wolfberry fruit and epimedium on DNA synthesis of the aging-youth 2BS fusion cells. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2003;23(12):926-928. View abstract.

Wu, H., Lien, E. J., and Lien, L. L. Chemical and pharmacological investigations of Epimedium species: a survey. Prog.Drug Res 2003;60:1-57. View abstract.

Yan, F. F., Liu, Y., Liu, Y. F., and Zhao, Y. X. Herba Epimedii water extract elevates estrogen level and improves lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(9):1224-1228. View abstract.

Yin, X. X., Chen, Z. Q., Dang, G. T., Ma, Q. J., and Liu, Z. J.. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(4):289-291. View abstract.

Zhao YL, Song HR Fei JX Liang Y Zhang BH Liu QP Wang J Hu P. The effects of Chinese yam-epimedium mixture on respiratory function and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Tradit Chin Med. 2012;32(2):203-207.

Zhao, L., Lan, L. G., Min, X. L., Lu, A. H., Zhu, L. Q., He, X. H., and He, L. J. Integrated treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine for early- and intermediate-stage diabetic nephropathy. Nan.Fang Yi.Ke.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 2007;27(7):1052-1055. View abstract.

Zhao, Y., Cui, Z., and Zhang, L.. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi. 1997;19(1):53-55. View abstract.

Zheng, M. S. An experimental study of the anti-HSV-II action of 500 herbal drugs. J Tradit.Chin Med 1989;9(2):113-116. View abstract.

Anon. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-HIV activity: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull World Health Organ 1989;67:613-8. View abstract.

Cirigliano MD, Szapary PO. Horny goat weed for erectile dysfunction. Alt Med Alert 2001;4:19-22.

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Corazza O, Martinotti G, Santacroce R, et al. Sexual enhancement products for sale online: raising awareness of the psychoactive effects of yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed, and Ginkgo biloba. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:841798. View abstract.

De Naeyer A, Pocock V, Milligan S, De Keukeleire D. Estrogenic activity of a polyphenolic extract of the leaves of Epimedium brevicornum. Fitoterapia 2005;76:35-40. View abstract.

Ho CC, Tan HM. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management. Curr Urol Rep 2011;12(6):470-8. View abstract.

Huang S, Meng N, Chang B, Quan X, Yuan R, Li B. Anti-inflammatory activity of Epimedium brevicornu maxim ethanol extract. J Med Food. 2018;21(7):726-733. View abstract.

Indran IR, Liang RL, Min TE, Yong EL. Preclinical studies and clinical evaluation of compounds from the genus Epimedium for osteoporosis and bone health. Pharmacol Ther 2016;162:188-205. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2016.01.015. View abstract.

Irfan M, Kwon TH, Lee DH, et al. Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Effects of Epimedium koreanum Nakai. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Apr 2021;2021:7071987. View abstract.

Liang, R. N., Liu, J., and Lu, J.. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2008;28(4):314-317. View abstract.

Lin CC, Ng LT, Hsu FF, et al. Cytotoxic effects of Coptis chinensis and Epimedium sagittatum extracts and their major constituents (berberine, coptisine and icariin) on hepatoma and leukaemia cell growth. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31:65-9. View abstract.

Meng FH, Li YB, Xiong ZL, et al. Osteoblastic proliferative activity of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim. Phytomedicine 2005;12:189-93. View abstract.

Ning H, Xin ZC, Lin G, et al. Effects of icariin on phosphodiesterase-5 activity in vitro and cyclic guanosine monophosphate level in cavernous smooth muscle cells. Urology 2006;68:1350-4. View abstract.

Parisi GC, Zilli M, Miani MP, et al. High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a multicenter, randomized, open trial comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:1697-704.. View abstract.

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Partin JF, Pushkin YR. Tachyarrhythmia and hypomania with horny goat weed. Psychosomatics 2004;45:536-7. View abstract.

Phillips M, Sullivan B, Snyder B, et al. Effect of Enzyte on QT and QTc intervals. Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1402-4. View abstract.

Ramanathan VS, Mitropoulos E, Shlopov B, et al. An Enzyte’ing’ case of acute hepatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011;45(9):834-5. View abstract.

Shen P, Guo BL, Gong Y, et al. Taxonomic, genetic, chemical and estrogenic characteristics of Epimedium species. Phytochemistry 2007;68:1448-58. View abstract.

Teo YL, Cheong WF, Cazenave-Gassiot A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of prenylflavonoids following oral ingestion of standardized epimedium extract in humans. Planta Med. 2019;85(4):347-355. View abstract.

Yap SP, Shen P, Li J, et al. Molecular and pharmacodynamic properties of estrogenic extracts from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Epimedium. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;113:218-24. View abstract.

Yin XX, Chen ZQ, Liu ZJ, et al. Icariine stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts by increasing production of bone morphogenetic protein 2. Chin Med J (Engl) 2007;120:204-10. View abstract.

Zhang CZ, Wang SX, Zhang Y, et al. In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;98:295-300. View abstract.

Zhang G, Qin L, Shi Y. Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen flavonoids exert beneficial effect on preventing bone loss in late postmenopausal women: a 24-month randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1072-9. View abstract.

Zhang X, Li Y, Yang X, et al. Inhibitory effect of Epimedium extract on S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase and biomethylation. Life Sci 2005;78:180-6. View abstract.

Zhong Q, Shi Z, Zhang L, et al. The potential of Epimedium koreanum Nakai for herb-drug interaction. J Pharm Pharmacol 2017;69(10):1398-408. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12773. View abstract.

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