ASTAXANTHIN: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

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anderson, m. I A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha reduction and growth of the prostatic carcinoma cell line lncap-fgc by natural astaxanthin and saw palmetto lipid extract in vitro. j herb.pharmacother. 2005;5(1):17-26. see summary.

Bikadi, Z., Hazai, E., Zsila, F., and Lockwood, S. F. Molecular modeling of non-covalent binding of homochiral (3s,3’s)-astaxanthin to matrix metalloproteinase-13 (mmp-13). bioorg. med chem 2006-15-8;14(16):5451-5458. see summary.

bloomer, r. J. The role of nutritional supplements in the prevention and treatment of resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. sports medicine 2007;37(6):519-532. see summary.

bolín, a. P., Macedo, R. c., marin, d. p., mud, m. p., and otton, r. Astaxanthin prevents in vitro autooxidative injury in human lymphocytes. cell biol toxicol. 2010;26(5):457-467. see summary.

briviba, k., bornemann, r., and lemmer, u. visualization of astaxanthin localization in ht29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by combined Raman confocal resonance and fluorescence microspectroscopy. mol nutr food res 2006;50(11):991-995. see summary.

camera, e., mastrofrancesco, a., fabbri, c., daubrawa, f., picardo, m., sies, h., and stahl, w. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect grape-induced oxidative damage and the expression of enzymes sensitive to oxidative stress. exp dermatol 2009;18(3):222-231. see summary.

cardunel, a. J. Dumitrescu, C. Zweier, J. l., and lockwood, s. F. Direct removal of superoxide anion by an astaxanthin derivative of disodium disuccinate: relative efficacy of individual stereoisomers versus statistical mixture of stereoisomers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging. biochem.biophys.res.comun. 1-8-2003;307(3):704-712. see summary.

chitchumroonchokchai, c., bomser, j. a., glamour, j. e., and failla, m. I xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells. j nutr 2004;134(12):3225-3232. see summary.

coral-hinostroza, g. n., ytrestoyl, t., ruyter, b., and bjerkeng, b. Plasma appearance of geometric e/z and r/s optical isomers of unesterified astaxanthin in men who received single doses of a mixture of 3 and 3’r/s optical isomers of fatty acyl diesters of astaxanthin. comp biochem physiol c.toxicol pharmacol 2004;139(1-3):99-110. see summary.

czeczuga-semeniuk, e. and Wolczynski, S. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of the uterine corpus. folia histochem.cytobiol. 2008;46(3):283-290. see summary.

daubrawa, f., sies, h., and stahl, w. Astaxanthin decreases gap junction intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts. j nutr 2005;135(11):2507-2511. see summary.

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fassett, r. G. Healy, H. Driver, R. Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. p., shaman, j. e., and coombes, j. yes Astaxanthin versus placebo on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress, and inflammation in kidney transplant patients (xanthine): a randomized controlled trial. bmc.nephrol. 2008;9:17. see summary.

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Hussein, G., Sankawa, U., Goto, H., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. jnatprod 2006;69(3):443-449. see summary.

Ikeda, Y., Tsuji, S., Satoh, A., Ishikura, M., Shirasawa, T., and Shimizu, T. Protective effects of astaxanthin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma sh-sy5y cells. j neurochemistry. 2008;107(6):1730-1740. see summary.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., and Yazawa, K. Effects of astaxanthin in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. biosci.biotechnol.biochem 2007;71(4):893-899. see summary.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., and Yazawa, K. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue in mice. biol pharmbull 2006;29(10):2106-2110. see summary.

ishida, s. [Lifestyle-related diseases and anti-aging ophthalmology: suppression of retinal and choroidal pathologies by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation]. nihon ganka gakkai zasshi 2009;113(3):403-422. see summary.

iwamoto, t., hosoda, k., hirano, r., kurata, h., matsumoto, a., miki, w., kamiyama, m., itakura, h., yamamoto, s. and Kondo, K. inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. j.atheroscler.thromb. 2000;7(4):216-222. see summary.

jackson, h. l., cardounel, a. J., Zweier, J. l., and lockwood, s. F. Synthesis, characterization, and direct elimination of aqueous superoxide anion from a highly water-dispersible astaxanthin-amino acid conjugate. bioorg. med chem lett 2004-02-8;14(15):3985-3991. see summary.

jyonouchi, h., zhang, l., gross, m., and tomita, y. Immunomodulatory actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production against t-dependent antigens. nourish cancer 1994;21(1):47-58. see summary.

Karppi, J., Rissanen, T. H., Nyyssonen, K., Kaikkonen, J., Olsson, A. g., voutilainen, s., and salonen, j. t. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation. int j vitam nutr res 2007;77(1):3-11. see summary.

Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Uto-kondo, H., Iizuka, M., Saita, E., Sone, H., Kurata, H., and Kondo, K. astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. eur j nutr 2010;49(2):119-126. see summary.

Kistler, A., Liechti, H., Pichard, L., Wolz, E., Oesterhelt, G., Hayes, A., and Maurel, P. Metabolism and cyp-inducing properties of astaxanthin in humans and primary human hepatocytes. arch.toxicol. 2002;75(11-12):665-675. see summary.

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read, d. h., kim, c. s., and read, and. J. Astaxanthin protects against mptp/mpp+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ros production in vivo and in vitro. food chemical toxicol. 2011;49(1):271-280. see summary.

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lignell, Å. medication to improve the duration of muscle function or the treatment of muscle disorders or diseases. 2001; (US Patent No. 6,245,818)

liu, x. and Osawa, T. Astaxanthin protects neuron cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for fueling the brain. nutr forum 2009;61:129-135. see summary.

liu, x., shibata, t., hisaka, s., and osawa, t. Astaxanthin inhibits reactive oxygen species-mediated cellular toxicity in dopaminergic sh-sy5y cells through the mitochondria-targeted protection mechanism. brain res 2-13-2009;1254:18-27. see summary.

liu, x., yamada, n., and osawa, t. to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of antioxidant dietary factors by applying lipid-derived dopamine-modifying adducts. methods mol.biol. 2010;594:263-273. see summary.

lockwood, s. f., jackson, h. l., and gross, g. J. Retrometabolic synthesis of astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-beta, beta-carotene-4,4′-dione) conjugates: a novel approach for oral and parenteral cardioprotection. cardiovasc.hematol.agents med chem 2006;4(4):335-349. see summary.

lions, yes. meter. and o’brien, b. meter. Modulatory effects of an astaxanthin-containing seaweed extract on grape-irradiated cells in culture. j.dermatol.sci. 2002;30(1):73-84. see summary.

mahmud, f. f., haines, d. d., abul, h. t., abal, a. t., onadeko, b. o., and wise, j. a. In vitro effects of astaxanthin combined with ginkgolide b on t-lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic subjects. j.pharmacol.sci. 2004;94(2):129-136. see summary.

Manabe, E., Handa, O., Naito, Y., Mizushima, K., Akagiri, S., Adachi, S., Takagi, T., Kokura, S., Maoka, T., and Yoshikawa , you Astaxanthin protects mesangial cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative signaling. j cell biochem 4-15-2008;103(6):1925-1937. see summary.

mcnulty, h., jacob, r. f., and mason, r. p. Biological activity of carotenoids related to different physicochemical membrane interactions. am j cardiol 5-22-2008;101(10a):20d-29d. see summary.

Mercke, J. Odeberg, A. Lignell, A. Pettersson, and P. Hoglund. The oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by the incorporation of lipid-based formulations. eur.j.pharm.sci. 2003;19(4):299-304. see summary.

miki, w., hosoda, k., kondo, k, and itakura, h. drink containing astaxanthin. 6-16-1998; patent application number 10155459

miyashita, k. role of marine carotenoids. nutr forum 2009;61:136-146. see summary.

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpenter, Bordeaux G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A. and Miyazawa, T. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. br j nutr 2011;105(11):1563-1571. see summary.

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Sookwong, P., Tsuduki, T., Satoh, A., and Miyazawa, T. Beta amyloid-induced erythrocyte damage and its attenuation by carotenoids. feb lett. 2011-4-20;585(8):1249-1254. see summary.

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nir, y., spill, g., and multz, c. Effect of an astaxanthin-containing product on rheumatoid arthritis. j am coll nutr. 2002; 21:490.

Nishigaki, I., Rajendran, P., Venugopal, R., Ekambaram, G., Sakthisekaran, D., and Nishigaki, Y. Cytoprotective role of astaxanthin against glycosylated protein/iron chelate-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. phythother.res 2010;24(1):54-59. see summary.

o’sullivan, l., ryan, l. and o’brien, b. comparison of the uptake and secretion of carotenoids carotene and xanthophyll by intestinal caco-2 cells. br j nutr 2007;98(1):38-44. see summary.

Ohgami, K., Shiratori, K., Kotake, S., Nishida, T., Mizuki, N., Yazawa, K., and Ohno, S. Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. invest ophthalmol.vis.sci 2003;44(6):2694-2701. see summary.

okada, y., ishikura, m., and maoka, t. Astaxanthin bioavailability in hematococcus algae extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits. biosci.biotechnol.biochem 2009;73(9):1928-1932. see summary.

Palozza, P., Torelli, C., Boninsegna, A., Simone, R., Catalan, A., Mele, M. c., and picci, n. Growth inhibitory effects of astaxanthin-rich algae Haematococcus pluvialis on human colon cancer cells. lett cancer 2009-9-28;283(1):108-117. see summary.

park, j. S., Chyun, J. h., kim, y. k., line, l. l., and chew, b. p. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and improved the immune response in humans. nutr metab (lond) 2010;7:18. see summary.

pashkow, f. j., watumul, d. g., and campbell, c. Astaxanthin: a potential new treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. am j cardiol 2008-22-5;101(10a):58d-68d. see summary.

peng, c. h., chang, c. h., peng, r. y., and chyau, c. c. Enhanced membrane transport of astaxanthin by liposomal encapsulation. eur j pharm biopharm. 2010;75(2):154-161. see summary.

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santocono, m., zurria, m., berrettini, m., fedeli, d., and falcioni, g. Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein on DNA damage and repair in grape-irradiated cells. j photochem.photobiol.b 2006-1-12;85(3):205-215. see summary.

Serebruany, V., Malinin, A., Goodin, T., and Pashkow, F. the in vitro effects of xancor, a synthetic derivative of astaxanthin, on hemostatic biomarkers in aspirin-treated and aspirin-naïve subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease. am jther 2010;17(2):125-132. see summary.

shen, h., kuo, c. C. Chou, J. Delvolve, A. Jackson, S. n., post, j., woods, a. s., hoffer, b. J., Wang, Y., and Harvey, B. k. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats. phaseb j 2009;23(6):1958-1968. see summary.

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spiller, g. a. and dewell, a. Safety of an astaxanthin-rich haematococcus pluvialis algae extract: a randomized clinical trial. 2003;6(1):51-56. see summary.

suganuma, k., nakajima, h., ohtsuki, m. and Imokawa, G. Astaxanthin attenuates uva-induced upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts. j dermatol sci 2010;58(2):136-142. see summary.

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wang, h. q., sun, x. b., xu, y. x., zhao, h., zhu, q. y., and zhu, c. q. Astaxanthin increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1 through the erk1/2 pathway and its protective effect against beta-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in sh-sy5y cells. brain res 2010-11-11;1360:159-167. see summary.

wang, x., willen, r., and wadstrom, t. Astaxanthin-rich seaweed meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in balb/ca mice. chemo antimicrobial agents. 2000;44(9):2452-2457. see summary.

wolf, a. m., asoh, s., hiranuma, h., ohsawa, i., iio, k., satou, a., ishikura, m., and ohta, s. Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox status and functional integrity against oxidative stress. j nutr biochem 2010;21(5):381-389. see summary.

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brown dr, warner ar, deb sk, gough la, sparks sa, mcnaughton lr. the effect of astaxanthin supplementation on performance and fat oxidation during a 40 km cycling time trial. j sci med sport. 2021;24(1):92-97. see summary.

chalyk ne, klochkov va, bandaletova ty, kyle nh, petyaev im. Continuous intake of astaxanthin reduces oxidative stress and reverses age-related morphological changes of residual skin surface components in middle-aged volunteers. nourish beef 2017;48:40-48. see summary.

chen jt, kotani k. Astaxanthin as a potential protector of liver function: a review. j clin med res 2016;8(10):701-4. see summary.

chew bp, park js, wong mw, et al. a comparison of the anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. resolution against cancer 1999;19:1849-54. see summary.

chew bp, wong mw, park js, et al. dietary beta-carotene and astaxanthin, but not canthaxanthin, stimulate splenocyte function in mice. res against cancer 1999;19;5223-8. see summary.

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Cicero, AF, Rovati LC, and Setnikar I. Eulipidaemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. a single-blind clinical trial. arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:26-30. see summary.

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serious cp, lupo m, white km, church ts. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. int j sports med. 2011;32(11):882-888. see summary.

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imai a, oda y, ito n, seki s, nakagawa k, miyazawa t, ueda f. Effects of dietary astaxanthin and sesamin supplementation on daily fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study. nutrients 2018;10(3). see summary.

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jyonuchi h, sun s, iijima k, brute md. Antitumor activity of astaxanthin and its mode of action. nourishcancer 2000;36:59-65. see summary.

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kumalic si, klun iv, bokal ev, pinter b. Effect of oral astaxanthin intake on semen parameters in patients with oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. radio oncol. 2020;55(1):97-105. see summary.

kupcinskas l, lafolie p, lignell a, et al. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. phytomedicine 2008;15:391-99. see summary.

liu sz, valencia ap, vandoren mp, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation improves metabolic adaptation to aerobic training in the elderly. physiological representative 2021;9(11):e14887. see summary.

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nir y, spiller g. Bioastin helps relieve pain and improve performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. j am coll nutr. 2002;21(5):490.

o’connor i, o’brien n. Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein, and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. j dermatol sci 1998;16:226-230.. see abstract.

parisi v, tedeschi m, gallinaro g, et al. carotenoids and antioxidants in the italian age-related maculopathy study: multifocal electroretinogram changes after 1 year. ophthalmology 2008;115:324-33. see summary.

res pt, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not increase fat utilization or improve endurance performance. med sci sports exercise. 2013;45(6):1158-65. see summary.

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sila a, ghlissi z, kamoun z, et al. Astaxanthin from shrimp by-products improves nephropathy in diabetic rats. eur j nutr. 2015;54(2):301-7. see summary.

takemoto m, yamaga m, furuichi y, yokote k. Astaxanthin improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Werner’s syndrome with diabetes mellitus. j am geriatr soc 2015;63(6):1271-3. see summary.

tanaka t, makita h, oshnishi m, et al. Chemoprevention of oral carcinogenesis in rats by natural xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. res cancer 1995;55:4059-64. see summary.

tanaka t, morishita y, suzui m, et al. Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the natural carotenoid astaxanthin. carcinogenesis 1994;15:15-9. see summary.

tian l, wen y, li s, et al. Benefits and safety of astaxanthin in the treatment of mild to moderate dry eye disease. front nut 2022;8:796951. see summary.

tominaga k, fungus n, karato m, yamashita e. cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin in human subjects. acta biochim pol. 2012;59(1):43-47. see summary.

urakaze m, kobashi c, satou y, et al. The beneficial effects of astaxanthin on glucose metabolism and modified low-density lipoprotein in healthy volunteers and subjects with prediabetes. nutrients 2021;13(12):4381. see summary.

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xia w, tang n, kord-varkaneh h, et al. The effects of astaxanthin supplementation on obesity, blood pressure, CRP, glycemic biomarkers, and lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. beef. pharmacology 2020;161:105113. see summary.

yamashita e. the effect of an astaxanthin-containing dietary supplement on skin condition. carotenoid science 2006;10:91-95.

yoshida h, yanai h, ito k, tomono y, et al. Natural astaxanthin administration increases serum HDL cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. atherosclerosis 2010;209:520-23. see summary.

zhou x, cao q, orfila c, zhao j, zhang l. Systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of astaxanthin on human skin aging. nutrients 2021;13(9):2917. see summary.

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